Partitioned Hungary 1526-1699
As a result of the previous centuries of feudal regime, a weakened and internally divided Hungary was unable to withstand external pressures. The foreign-influenced ruling feudal class failed to defend the national interests and this led to the 1526 military defeat at Mohács against the Ottoman army and to the subsequent partition of Hungary. Thus, Hungary was occupied and partitioned by the Habsburgs and the Ottomans, with the Principality of Transylvania remaining as an autonomous entity. These events proved to be catastrophic for the future historical development of Hungary as the Hungarian population suffered great losses due to centuries of warfare and foreign occupation.

Hungary partitioned by the Habsburg and Ottoman empires (16th c.)

After the Ottoman Empire's withdrawal, the Austrian Habsburg take-over of Hungary was met with Hungarian resistance in the 1701-11 War of Independence, but Hungary remained under Habsburg control. Hungary thus became an oppressed, exploited and colonized land as a result of which the Hungarian nation became politically, economically, socially, culturally and demographically marginalized in its own country.

Hungarian Huszár, 18th c.

Prince Ferenc Rákóczi, leader of the 1701-11 Hungarian War of IndependenceHungarian Freedom Fighters, 1701-11 Hungarian War of IndependenceHungarian Freedom Fighters, 1701-11 Hungarian War of IndependenceHungarian Huszár, 18th c.Hungarian Huszár, 18th c.

Another Hungarian War of Independence took place in 1848-49, which was defeated with Russian intervention. However, Austria was unable to obstruct the Hungarian national will to reassert its historical rights, and in 1867 the Austro-Hungarian Compromise took place, granting Hungary domestic self-rule, but the ministries of finance, foreign affairs and war remained under Habsburg imperial control. As the Habsburgs continued their policy of divide and rule, they incited the foreign ethnic groups settled in Hungary against the Hungarians, and this policy led to the First World War.

1848 Hungarian National Uprising

Sándor Petöfi, poet, hero and martyr of the 1848-49 Hungarian War of IndependenceLajos Kossuth, leader of the 1848-49 Hungarian War of Independence1848 Hungarian War of Independence flag1849 Hungarian War of Independence flag19th c. Hungarian Huszár uniforms

Battle between Hungarian and Habsburg forces, Kápolna 1849Battle at Tápióbicske, April 4, 1849Hungarian forces retake the Buda fortress, May 21, 1849
Battle at the Tömös pass, June 20, 1849Battle of Nagysalló, 1849Battle between Hungarian and Russian forces, 1849

After the battleHabsburg repression: execution of the Hungarian War of Independence generalsThe 13 executed Hungarian War of Independence generals

Enthousiastic reception of Lajos Kossuth in New York, December 6, 1851Hungarian Liberty memorial for the 1848-49 Hungarian War of Independence martyrs, Arad (destroyed by the Rumanians after WWI)

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