The historical geographical name of Turan refers to the area East of the Caspian sea. Archeological research has shown that this area saw the development of a highly evolved civilization of Sumerian (Mesopotamian) origin (S.P. Tolstov: Ancient Chorasmia). The Sumerians were the creators of the first known civilization, the inventors of agriculture, metallurgy, the wheel, writing, and astronomy, among others (S.N. Kramer: History begins at Sumer).
MISCONCEPTIONS ABOUT THE TURANIANS (URAL-ALTAIC PEOPLES): INDO-EUROPEAN SUPREMACIST DOGMAS
The 19th century researchers who discovered and studied the ancient Mesopotamian Sumerian language determined that it was related to the Turanian languages (M. Érdy: The Sumerian Ural-Altaic Magyar Relationship). Comparative linguistic analysis indicates that of all known ethno-linguistic groups, the Hungarian, Turkic, Caucasian and Finnic languages are by far the closest to Sumerian (K. Gosztony: Dictionnaire d'étymologie sumérienne et grammaire comparée). This is confirmed by archeological and anthropological evidence which shows that thousands of years ago, the Sumerians and other related Near Eastern peoples settled in the vast region of Central Eurasia from the Carpathian basin to the Altai mountains, from the Urals and Siberia to Iran and India (L. Götz: Keleten Kel a Nap (The Sun Rises in the East)).
The descendants of these Sumerian-related peoples were known as the Scythians, Sarmatians, Medes, Parthians, Chorasmians, Kushans, Huns, Avars, Bulgars, Khazars and Magyars, among others, and gave rise to the Finnic and Turkic-Mongolian ethnic groups. These Turanian peoples created flourishing cultures and states which exerted a determining influence on the peripheral Eurasian cultures of Europe, the Middle East, Persia, India, and China, as well as on the formation of the various Eurasian ethno-linguistic groups. See Historical Chronology
Dogma #1: The myth of Indo-European "cultural superiority"
This myth was invented in the 19th c. and became the basis of the ideology of the Aryan master race. It claims that the ancient Indo-Europeans had a higher cultural level than various non-Indo-Europeans who were considered to be culturally inferior. This ideological bias manifested itself clearly at the so-called "Paris Peace Conference" after WWI, when the so-called "victorious" agressor states primarily responsible for the war (the "Allied and Associated Powers") invaded and dismantled two Turanian states, the Kingdom of Hungary and the Ottoman Empire:
"reminiscing over Hungary's punishment at the Paris Peace Conference, the British diplomat Harold Nicolson noted: "I confess that I regarded, and still regard, that Turanian tribe with acute distaste. Like their cousins the Turks, they had destroyed much and created nothing." This Allied participant at the Paris Peace Conference did more than just express his unflattering opinion of the Hungarian people. He captured the biased political atmosphere of the international setting in which the historical Hungarian state met its death." (Borsody, 1988)
This ideological bias still influences Indo-European research: the so-called "Kurgan theory" of Indo-European origins developed by Marija Gimbutas is one of the more recent examples. This theory is still being misleadingly presented as a credible scientific theory despite its highly questionable interpretation of the facts, the lack of conclusive data supporting it, and the substantial contradicting evidence (Götz, 1994).
Dogma #2: Sumerians an "isolate" ethno-linguistic group
This claim states that the Sumerians were not related to any known ethno-linguistic group. However, there is evidence to the contrary: the Sumerians were not an isolated ethno-linguistic group, they were part of a larger non-Semitic and non-Indo-European ethno-linguistic group including the Subareans, Hurrians, Hatti, Kassites, and Elamites, which inhabited the ancient Near East before the appearance of the Semitic and Indo-European peoples in that region. In fact, the evidence indicates the existence of non-Indo-European peoples not only in the Near East, but also in Europe, Iran, Central and South Asia prior to the Indo-Europeans. Even if not all of these non-Indo-European peoples were originally related to the Sumerians, given the substantial linguistic, archeological, and anthropological evidence of the dominant ethno-linguistic, cultural, economic, and political influence exerted by the Sumerian civilization over 1500 years in Western and Central Eurasia, it is highly probable that most of these ancient non-Semitic and non-Indo-European peoples evolved into related ethno-linguistic groups through cultural and ethno-linguistic convergence and hybridization with Sumerian or Sumerian-related peoples. The significant cultural and ethno-linguistic influence exerted over large areas of Eurasia by the Sumerians and related Turanian peoples played a key role in the development of the Semitic, Indo-European, and Ural-Altaic ethno-linguistic groups, as indicated by comparative linguistic analysis which shows that a significant number of words of Sumerian origin are present in those Eurasian language groups (Götz, 1994).
The fundamental problem with the Sumerian question is the fact that the creators of mankind's earliest known civilization were neither Semitic, nor Indo-European, and this is an inconvenient reality for certain leading interest groups whose ideological bias has been interfering with scientific research about the origins of the various Eurasian ethno-linguistic groups since the 19th century.
Dogma #3: Single-source origin of Indo-Europeans
This is the so-called "family tree" theory which claims that the Indo-European languages and peoples originate from a single common ancestral language, people and homeland, based on Grimm's linguistic theory of sound change. So far all attempts at locating the presumed ancestral Indo-European homeland and to reconstruct the hypothetical ancestral Indo-European language have failed. The evidence suggests that there were no single Indo-European common ancestral language, people and homeland, but that the Indo-European languages and peoples evolved from a complex process of cultural and ethno-linguistic convergence and hybridization among various proto-Indo-European and non-Indo-European peoples, including Turanians. The failure of Indo-European linguistics is due to the fact that many words which are assumed to be of Indo-European origin are in fact of Sumerian origin, but Indo-European linguists simply continue to ignore this because of the erroneous belief that Sumerian was an "isolate" language (Götz, 1994).
Dogma #4: Scythians an "Iranian" people
The claim that the Scythians were "Iranian", and therefore Indo-European, is based on the highly questionable interpretation of a few names and words transmitted by Greek sources. The evidence indicates that there were non-Indo-European peoples in Iran and Turan long before the appearance of Indo-Europeans in those regions. Some of these pre-Indo-European peoples may have later become "Indo-Europeanized" to some extent. The Scythians, Cimmerians, Sarmatians, Medes, and Parthians were therefore not originally Indo-European, they were Turanians. Indo-European linguistics has a tendency to claim as "Indo-European" many ancient peoples who were in fact originally non-Indo-European, but may have later become "Indo-Europeanized" as a result of ethno-linguistic convergence and hybridization.
Dogma #5: Uralic and Altaic groups "not related"
Indo-European linguists reject the possibility of a connection between the Uralic and Altaic ethno-linguistic groups. This is an unfounded assumption as the evidence indicates that the Uralic and Altaic groups were formed through ethno-linguistic convergence and hybridization with Turanian peoples such as the Sumerians and Scythians. The Uralic and Altaic groups therefore share common Turanian ethno-linguistic roots.
Dogma #6: Existence of Turanian ethno-linguistic group dismissed
Based on the unsubstantiated claims that the Sumerians were an "isolate" ethno-linguistic group and that the Uralic and Altaic groups are "not related", Indo-European linguists deny the existence of an ancient Turanian ethno-linguistic group which included the Sumerians and the Scythians despite evidence to the contrary, evidence which they simply ignore or dismiss without valid justification.
Dogma #7: The theory of the "Finno-Ugrian" origin of Hungarians
The so-called "Finno-Ugrian" theory of the origin of the Hungarian people and language is closely modelled on the Indo-European "family tree" linguistic theory. As such, not only is the "Finno-Ugrian" theory fundamentally flawed, it was also developed during the 19th century when Hungary was under the foreign rule of the Austrian Habsburgs. As a result, this pseudo-scientific theory was part of the anti-Hungarian cultural policy specifically designed to weaken the national self-consciousness of the Hungarian people by distorting and falsifying their origins and history. This was the case under the Habsburg regime's policy of Germanization just as it was the case under the Soviet Communist regime's policy of Russification. It was therefore in the interest of these regimes to
"let the conquered Hungarians believe that they have an ancestry more primitive than that of the Indo-European peoples. In Habsburg times Hungarian children were taught that most of their civilization came from the Germans: today they are taught that their 'barbaric' ancestors were civilized by the educated Slavs." (Bobula, 1982)
According to the latest genetic research (Semino, 2000), the main Hungarian ancestral population has inhabited its current Carpathian homeland for at least 40 000 years, and is of Central Eurasian origin. The genetic markers most characteristic of the Hungarian population are also present in Eastern Europe and Central and South-Western Asia, and correspond to the known distribution and movements of the ancient Scythian and Hun peoples based on the historical and archeological evidence, thus substantiating the Hungarian-Scythian, Scythian-Hun and Hun-Magyar ethno-linguistic connections.
The genetic evidence also indicates that the genetic markers most characteristic of the Finno-Ugrians of Northern Europe, the Volga-Ural region, and Siberia are completely absent in the Hungarian population. Based on the latest linguistic, archeological, anthropological, and genetic research, Hungarians are therefore not of Finno-Ugrian origin, but the Finno-Ugrian ethno-linguistic group was formed under the dominant cultural influence of the Turanian peoples with whom the Finno-Ugrians came in contact, thus explaining the Hungarian-Uralic linguistic correlation.