9th c.
Following the settlement of Jewish refugees from the Near East in the Khazar Empire, the ruling dynasty of the Khazars, another Turanian people, is converted to Judaism and seeks to impose this religion upon all its subjects. This precipitates a civil war which leads to the collapse of the Khazar Empire. Several rebel Khazar tribes join the Hungarian tribal federation which was led by the Magyar tribe. At that time the Hungarians were established in their own independent state of Dentumagyaria, between the Avar and Khazar empires.


Álmos, leader of the Hungarians and father of Árpád (artwork: Gyula László)Council of the Hungarian leaders (artwork: Gyula László)The Covenant of Blood which created the Hungarian Nation
(painting by Bertalan Székely)The Hungarian Covenant of Blood ritual (artwork: Gyula László)Silver sabretache cover plate, Hungary, 9th c.

After the collapse of the Khazar Empire, the Magyars and the other Hungarian tribes move West into the Etelköz region, where the Covenant of Blood takes place. This Covenant effectively creates the Magyar (Hungarian) nation which proceeds with the reconquest of the Carpathian Basin and its surrounding regions. After expelling foreign encroaching powers from the Carpathian region and uniting with their previously settled Hun-Avar ethnic kin, the Magyars establish the Hungarian State in 896 as the successor state to the Hun and Avar empires.

Árpád is chosen as the leader of the Hungarians (artwork: József Mór)The entry of the Hungarians into the Carpathian Basin, 895 Hungarian horsemen, Magyar Conquest Period, 9th c. (artwork: Gyula László)The Hungarian reconquest of the Carpathian Basin (painting by Árpád Feszty)The Székely people (Huns) greet Árpád and the Magyars upon their arrival in Hungary (artwork: Gyula László)
Árpád the Great, Founder of the Hungarian State (painting by Árpád Feszty)Charging Hungarian horsemen (painting by Árpád Feszty)Sacred white horse ceremony (painting by Árpád Feszty)Hungarian Magi - high priests (painting by Árpád Feszty)

10th c.
Following their victory over the invading Germans in 907, the Hungarians launch a series of punitive and pre-emptive military campaigns in Europe with the objective of preventing the formation of a large powerful united empire in the West, which would represent a serious threat to the security of the Hungarian State, and of recovering the Avar gold treasures pillaged by the invading Germans during the previous century. The Hungarians thus secure their state's position as a great power.

Map showing the retaliatory Hungarian military campaigns of the 10th c. (black lines leading out from Hungary)

Hungarian reconquest and state foundation (painting by Mihály Munkácsi)Hungarians in combat (artwork: Gyula László)Hungarians in combat (artwork: Gyula László)Modern recreation of ancient Hungarian mounted warrior, Magyar Settlement Period, 9th c.
Hungarians in combat (artwork: Gyula László)The great Hungarian warlord Lehel kills the German ruler after being taken prisoner as a result of German treachery (artwork: Gyula László)The great Hungarian warrior Botond defeats the Greek giant in a duel at Constantinople (artwork: Gyula László)Hungarian sword dance (artwork: Gyula László)THE ATILLA SWORD, HUNGARY, 10th C.

Following the reign of the Hungarian ruler Géza, during which foreign interests gain increasing influence under the guise of Christianization, Géza's son István (Stephen) is installed as king of Hungary with the assistance of foreign armed intervention, in violation of ancient Hungarian traditions and of the sacred Covenant of Blood. Koppány, the rightful heir to the throne and leader of the national resistance is captured and quartered. Under the rule of István, feudalism and Christianity are imposed by force. The ancient Hungarian runic scriptures are burned and the traditionalist leaders and priests persecuted and exterminated. The Hungarian Runes

Hungarian costume, tent interior, 9th-10th c.Hungarian costume, tent interior, 9th-10th c.Gold helmet ornament, Hungary, 9th-10th c.

The Westernization of Hungary results in the enslavement of the Hungarian population under an increasingly foreign feudal ruling class and church where foreign influences and foreign interests become predominant.

CARVED IVORY HORN, HUNGARY, 10th C.SILVER DISK WITH THE MYTHICAL HUNGARIAN TURUL, HUNGARY, 9th C.LION OF ESZTERGOM, HUNGARY, 10th C.Hungarian horsemen, Magyar Settlement Period, 9th c. Artwork: Gyula LászlóHungarian costume, Magyar Settlement Period, 9th c. Artwork: Gyula LászlóHungarian costumes, Magyar Settlement Period, 9th c. Artwork: Gyula LászlóSilver sabretache cover plate, Hungary, 9th c.
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